body system

“The Continuity of the Body: Hypothesis of Treatment of the Five Diaphragms”, PubMed article, By Bordoni B. & Zanier E.

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The diaphragm muscle should not be seen as a segment but as part of a body system. This muscle is an important crossroads of information for the entire body, from the trigeminal system to the pelvic floor, passing from thoracic diaphragm to the floor of the mouth: the network of breath. Viola Frymann first spoke of the treatment of three diaphragms, and more recently four diaphragms have been discussed. Current scientific knowledge has led to discussion of the manual treatment of five diaphragms. This article highlights the anatomic connections and fascial and neurologic aspects of the diaphragm muscle, with four other structures considered as diaphragms: that is, the five diaphragms. The logic of the manual treatment proposed here is based on a concept and diagnostic work that should be the basis for any area of the body: The patient never just has a localized symptom but rather a system that adapts to a question.”

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Dysfunction, disease

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“If we accept the concept that each of us consists of an orderly grouping of cells living within a fluid matrix, and that health represents a situation in which the internal environment is maintained within homeostatic limits by the integrating systems of the body, then it is logical to postulate that disease is an alteration in these mechanisms which permits or forces a departure from these homeostatic limits, resulting in altered function or physiology.”

“Osteopathic Medecine”




Disorders of the Endocrine System,

William Baldwin, Jr

Chapt 16

p. 228