Every body structure is wrapped in connective tissue, or fascia, creating a structural continuity that gives form and function to every tissue and organ. Currently, there is still little information on the functions and interactions between the fascial continuum and the body system; unfortunately, in medical literature there are few texts explaining how fascial stasis or altered movement of the various connective layers can generate a clinical problem. Certainly, the fascia plays a significant role in conveying mechanical tension, in order to control an inflammatory environment. The fascial continuum is essential for transmitting muscle force, for correct motor coordination, and for preserving the organs in their site; the fascia is a vital instrument that enables the individual to communicate and live independently. This article considers what the literature offers on symptoms related to the fascial system, trying to connect the existing information on the continuity of the connective tissue and symptoms that are not always clearly defined. In our opinion, knowing and understanding this complex system of fascial layers is essential for the clinician and other health practitioners in finding the best treatment strategy for the patient.”
By Bruno Bordoni and Emiliano Zanier
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The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland’s theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium.”
By Bordoni B., Zanier E.
“The Continuity of the Body: Hypothesis of Treatment of the Five Diaphragms”, PubMed article, By Bordoni B. & Zanier E.
The diaphragm muscle should not be seen as a segment but as part of a body system. This muscle is an important crossroads of information for the entire body, from the trigeminal system to the pelvic floor, passing from thoracic diaphragm to the floor of the mouth: the network of breath. Viola Frymann first spoke of the treatment of three diaphragms, and more recently four diaphragms have been discussed. Current scientific knowledge has led to discussion of the manual treatment of five diaphragms. This article highlights the anatomic connections and fascial and neurologic aspects of the diaphragm muscle, with four other structures considered as diaphragms: that is, the five diaphragms. The logic of the manual treatment proposed here is based on a concept and diagnostic work that should be the basis for any area of the body: The patient never just has a localized symptom but rather a system that adapts to a question.”
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